A new method of delivering drugs might be just around the corner with Genisphere using 3D DNA nanostructure that can be functionalized to deliver drugs and other molecules to a variety of targets.
Genisphere’s 3DNA® nanotechnology drug delivery platform is being touted as a versatile, multivalent and rapid delivery platform with wide applications in animal and plant applications. Some of the milestone’s already achieved by the platform are excellent biodistribution profiles, ability to easily cross the blood-brain/blood-lung barrier, successful immunodepletion in live tests and specific accumulation of tumor cells.
Core of 3DNA®
At the core of the 3DNA® platform is a highly branched 3 dimensional DNA nanostructure that is built from monomeric subunits of DNA. A single monomer is composed of double DNA strands that share a complementary central region of similar sequence, with four single stranded arms. These single arms base pair with other monomer arms to form 3DNA®. Repeated hybridization and chemical cross-linking adds more layers. Up-to 4 layers are currently possible with an average of around 280 arms per 3DNA® molecule. Once the layered scaffold is built the molecule that determine the labeling and target are attached to the nanoscaffold.
The3DNA® molecules can be programmed to target antibodies, peptides or any other molecule, with the cargo being proteins, antibodies, peptides, small interfering RNA molecules or just plain drug molecules. The DNA nanostructures are fully degraded in physiological environment and therefore are biocompatible and nontoxic to other living cells.
Apart from these in-vivo uses, Genisphere’s 3DNA® technology has also been used to better the limit of detection in a variety of assay platforms such as ELISA, microarray, lateral flow and bead-based flow cytometry. It has shown to provide a considerable improvement in sensitivity where current optimization methods have not performed to required standards.
Some of the more useful uses of 3DNA® are in replacing antibody drug conjugates, where instead of using three or four antibodies couples to one drug molecule, the DNA nanoparticles allow for hundreds of different or same antibodies with the same drug molecule. This allows researchers to mix and match targeting payload and moieties and amplifies the signal.
Being negatively charged and imposing no restrictions on the type of specificity or label used, the 3DNA® may be configured to meet a wide variety of detection and delivery needs. The 3DNA® nanoparticles also allow for attaching enzymatic, fluorescent and radioactive labels to allow for imaging and tracking.
With close to 25 commercial and research partners such as BBI Solutions, Center for Targeted Therapeutics and Translational Nanomedicine, the 3DNA® platform will soon be finding its way to diagnostic clinics and personalized therapeutic drugs.